The Sailing Stones of Death Valley

Single rock in the middle of a sandy valley in Death Valley National Park

Death Valley National Park is a strange place by any standard. Famously known for being the hottest place on earth, Death Valley also sits at the driest and lowest elevation in North America.

Its strangest feature of all is the mysterious Racetrack Playa. Here, rocks drift across the flat desert landscape, seemingly propelled by no power other than their own!

The mystery of the sailing stones
Located on the border of California and Nevada, Death Valley National Park was designated in 1933, and is home to one of the world's strangest phenomena: rocks that move along the desert ground with no gravitational cause. Known as "sailing stones," the rocks vary in size from a few ounces to hundreds of pounds. Though no one has ever seen them actually move in person, the trails left behind the stones and periodic changes in their location make it clear that they do.

Rocks of Racetrack Playa in Death Valley

Scientific explanations
The rocks of Racetrack Playa are composed of dolomite and syenite, the same materials that make up the surrounding mountains. They tumble down due to the forces of erosion, coming to rest on the parched ground below. Once they reach the level surface of the playa, the rocks somehow move horizontally, leaving perfect tracks behind them to record their path.

Many of the largest rocks have left behind trails as long as 1,500 feet, suggesting that they've moved a long way indeed from their original location. Rocks with a rough-bottomed surface leave straight tracks, while smooth-bottomed rocks tend to wander. The sailing stones have been observed and studied since the early 1900s, and several theories have been suggested to explain their mysterious movements. 

In 2014, scientists were able to capture the movement of the stones for the first time using time-lapse photography. The results strongly suggest that the sailing stones are the result of a perfect balance of ice, water, and wind. In the winter of 2014, rain formed a small pond that froze overnight and thawed the next day, creating a vast sheet of ice that was reduced by midday to only a few millimeters thick. Driven by a light wind, this sheet broke up and accumulated behind the stones, slowly pushing them forward. 

Sailing stones in the desert of Death Valley

Visiting the Racetrack
To see the moving rocks of the Racetrack Playa, drive 2 miles south of the Grandstand parking area. While the precise location of the sailing stones is always changing, you can usually get the best view by walking about a half-mile toward the southeast corner of the playa.

When you do visit, please do not disturb the rocks or their tracks. Following rain, the playa becomes muddy, so be careful to avoid approaching the rocks and leaving unsightly footprints during wet conditions. Driving off established roads is also prohibited. 

The sailing stones of Death Valley continue to baffle park visitors and scientists alike. We may think we have found the answer to their movement, but who knows what other secrets lie in Death Valley? Pay a visit and see if you can come up with your own theory about this great phenomena. 

Tea kettles hanging from Death Valley sign

To learn more interesting facts about national parks across the system, check out our entire free Owner’s Guide series – you’ll find great travel ideas and inspiration for your next adventure! 


Interesting commentary and explanation, but I'm curious about the photograph at the end. What's with all the tea kettles?
The sign the tea kettles are hooked to denotes the location as Teakettle Junction. It is a road junction in Inyo County, California at an elevation of 4,150 feet in Death Valley near the Racetrack Playa and Ubehebe Crater.
Kettles grew there like a tree that grew shoes in Nevada. People thought it would be cute to add kettles.
Thanks for the info. My PowerPoint is going to be awesome.
The solution to the rocks' tracks from being frozen in blown ice cakes has been known since at least May of 1966. I was at the Racetrack Playa then with my father, Ed Seiler - an Alaskan bush pilot, and a geology class of about 20 students and their professor. After viewing the rocks' tracks, the professor asked the class and us what we thought caused the tracks, and my dad raised his hand. He said these tracks are the same as those seen in shallow ponds on the Alaskan tundra. The tracks there are occur in the spring when the ice in the ponds has mostly melted, but with some rocks caught in ice cakes. The wind pushes the ice cakes across the ponds and the rocks stuck in them leave tracks just like at racetrack playa. The geology professor agreed that this same cause was the most likely explanation for the tracks of Racetrack Playa. May, 1966.
Maybe they want people to think and try to figure it out on their own or they have it explained at the actual park
Thanks for sharing that. I hope they update there information.

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