From the harsh Chihuahuan desert community to the lush streamside woodlands, the surrounding ecosystems provide habitats for 60 species of mammals, 289 species of birds, and 55 species of reptiles.
Nocturnal desert animals include the kit fox, coyote, mountain lion, bobcat, badger, Texas banded gecko, and about 16 species of bats. Desert reptiles include the western diamondback rattlesnake, bullsnake, coachwhip snake, prairie lizard, collared lizard, crevice spiny lizard, and the Chihuahuan spotted whiptail.
One of the most unique and unexpected ecosystems in the Guadalupe Mountains is the riparian woodland. Mule deer, skunks, and racoons can be found here.
Rocky canyons are home to ringtails, rock squirrels, and a variety of reptiles including rock and black-tailed rattlesnakes, mountain patchnose snakes, and tree lizards.
On the mountaintops, over 3,000 feet above the desert, one can find extensive pine forests. Mountaintop forests are home to animals such as elk, black bear, gray foxes, striped and hog-nosed skunks, porcupine, mule deer, mountain lions, and mountain short-horned lizards.